Collecting of rainwater during the rainy season is important in providing water for agricultural use, domestic and household uses and also for commercial and industrial uses. Rooftop water harvesting is the commonest rainwater harvesting practice. Enhancement of self-sufficiency as well as provision for water in the future when the common source of water is unavailable is done by harvesting rainwater. Rainwater harvesting for various uses has some implication in economics mostly when water generally used is charges and also environmental in enhancing conservation. Rainwater is usually collected from the rooftop using gutters into a given collection point.
Collecting rainwater is mostly done into rainwater tanks which can be made of different materials. The various materials used in the making of the rainwater tanks includes plastic, concrete, fiberglass, aluminum metal, and stainless steel which should be resistant to rust and other chemical reaction. Durability and affordability are some of the major factors that have an influence on the choice of a rainwater tank to be used. Concrete rainwater tanks are usually more durable than the other tanks although rainwater tanks more preferred are those made of plastic materials. The rainwater tanks can be placed on the ground surface to collect the rainwater, or they can be placed underground. It is a little hard to fit underground rainwater tanks with taps or valve, so water has to be pumped from the tanks so as to use it.
Rainwater tanks should be covered at all times leaving just a small hole where the pipe discharging water can pass through so as to avoid unwanted materials from dropping into the water. Preference for plastic tanks is because of their ease of availability and also come in different shapes and volumes. Plastic rainwater tanks should be placed on a concrete surface so as to avoid algae growth. The plastic rainwater tanks if possible should be placed in a place where they are not exposed to the solar since they a greatly affected by solar radiation which reduces their durability. Other rainwater tanks made of other materials used should be well fitted to avoid contaminants getting into the water more so if the rainwater collected is for human consumption.
Harvested rainwater usually have a lot of contaminants hence should be sterilized for human consumption. This is because there are so many contaminants that settle on the rooftop and ones it rains they usually find themselves into the water. Contaminants can be removed through chlorination or filtration of the harvested rainwater. Chlorination is usually preferred since it is not a costly method and it is also effective in sterilization. Loads of contaminants usually settle on the rooftop hence it is important to ensure that water is not harvested during the first rain so that the contaminants cannot find their way into the rainwater tank.